Job involvement

The concept of job involvement or work engagement describes the state of mind and the effort with which an employee executes his/her work tasks and is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption (Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalez-Roma, & Bakker, 2002, as cited in Ringl, 2013). Vigor refers to the positive attitude of employees towards their jobs and the persistence with which they overcome work-related obstacles and difficulties. Dedication involves the emotional component of work. Dedicated employees find meaning in the work they do; they commit to their job and experience positive emotions in regard to it. Absorption describes a certain level of engagement— one in which an employee is so engrossed in work and focused on his/her tasks that he/she finds it difficult to stop working. Organizational ft and organizational sacrifice (elements of job embeddedness) are positively related to work engagement (Ringl, 2013) and personal resources (e.g. self-efficacy, optimism, etc.) have positive effect on temporal work engagement moderated by high level of challenge demands (Bakker & Sanz-Vergel, 2013). Cited results mean that employees would feel more involved in their job if they fit well in the organization they are working for and if they think that leaving their current organization would be extremely difficult for them. Work engagement level can also vary temporally because of the presence or absence of challenging job demands (demands that give an employee a chance to learn and grow as a professional). High level of challenge demands strengthens the positive influence of employee’s personal resources on work engagement on a weekly basis (Bakker & Sanz-Vergel, 2013). Higher level of employees’ work engagement is important for the organizations due to its positive relationships to employees’ performance and positive job attitudes (Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002, as cited in Ringl, 2013).